P=have O=don’t have it
republic in central Europe, bordering on the Adriatic Sea.
Slovenia was a part of Hungary
through the Middle Ages and was ruled by Austria
after 1526. After World War I, it became part of the
independent Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Slovenia issued
stamps until 1921, when the first Yugoslav national issues were released.
During World War II, Slovenia
was divided between Germany and Italy,
both of which issued separate stamps for their zones. After the war, the
province was reoccupied by Yugoslavia, and overprinted
stamps of the German occupation (Ljubljana), Germany proper, and Hungary were used, until replaced
by regular Yugoslav issues. On June 25, 1991, Slovenia
declared its independence from Yugoslavia.
Although Yugoslav military forces initially attempted to suppress independence,
they soon withdrew. Because it does not abut Yugoslavia
and does not have the religious heterogeneity of other former Yugoslav
has been free of the warfare that marked the area in the 1990's. Slovenia quickly began to integrate with the
economy of Western Europe, and in 1997 all
political parties announced their support for the country's membership in NATO.
See: Yugoslavia stamps
75th Anniversary, Slovenian Postal Service
#167: Yugoslavia-Slovenia #3L8O
50th Anniversary, Reunification of Primorska
Inside #306: Yugoslavia Zone B (Istria) #35O
50th ANNIVERSARY OF THE REUNIFICATION
OF PRIMORSKA WITH THE HOMELAND
have been living uninterruptedly on the territory of the Slovene Littoral and Istria from the 7th century on. Together with other
fellow countrymen they lived in the Austro-Hungarian Empire until World War I.
to the Peace Treaty of Rapallo, signed after World War I, the entire Slovene
Littoral and Istria were ceded to the Kingdom of Italy.
Even though the American president Wilson declared the right of
self-determination of entente countries to be the essential war aim, this right
was denied to the Slovene nation. By taking away Primorska,
a great wrong was done to Slovenes.
the annexation of this territory the Italian state began to carry out the
assimilation measures, which were intensified when the fascists came to power.
They destroyed most of the Slovene economy and banking, abolished Slovene
cultural and other associations and Slovene schools. The Slovene language was
banned not only in offices but also in churches. The organisation
TIGR (Trieste, Istria,
Gorica, Reka) did its
outmost to resist these measures. Resistance to fascist power was also shown by
adherents of organisations such as Orjunavit, Edinost (Unity) and Svečeniki Sv. Pavla (Priests of St. Paul). Maltreatment of Slovene
inhabitants resulted in the numerous emigrations of Slovenes to the then Slovenia and to South
general resistance of the Primorska Slovenes in Italy flared up only during World War II when Italy occupied a considerable part of Slovene
territory and annexed it as the Ljubljana
region. Together with the units of IV Yugoslav Army Slovene partisans liberated
all parts of Primorska. The liberation, however, was
followed by the division of Primorska, made on the
basis of an agreement between the governments of USA,
Great Britain and Yugoslavia signed in Belgrade in 1945, into two military zones:
zone A under Anglo-American and zone B under Yugoslav military administration.
In the years 1945 -1947 the political, diplomatic and administrational endeavours to annex the divided area of Primorska
to Slovenia and Yugoslavia were
intensified. All inhabitants throughout Primorska
contributed to these endeavours with manifestations,
demonstrations and scientific-historical journalism. The multitude and the
persuasiveness of this movement had wide repercussions in the international
public opinion. After all, the demands for reunification with the homeland were
the wishes and demands did not come true completely. On 16th December 1947,
when the peace treaty with Italy
came into force, only a large part of Primorska,
which represented almost one third of the Slovene territory and inhabitants,
was reunified with the homeland.
50th Anniversary, Slovenian Philatelic Association
Inside #346: Yugoslavia #3L5O
Inside #346: Yugoslavia #305O
50th Anniversary of the Slovenian Philatelic
there are no records about the first philatelists in Slovenia, but it is known
that as early as 1911 philatelists in Maribor started to gather round the
tables in inns to exchange stamps. The first registered association of
philatelists - called the Philatelic Club for Slovenia
- was established in Ljubljana
on 3 September 1919.
idea of establishing a Slovenian philatelic association began to be
propagandized among Slovenian philatelists soon after World War II. At that
time in the then Slovenia
there were three societies with a pre-war tradition. The Slovenian Philatelic
Society and Ljubljana Philatelic Club in Ljubljana, and the Society of Philatelists in Maribor. Stamp collectors
from other places directly joined these societies or their affiliate clubs
At that time special postage stamps at post offices were only available to
those stamp collectors who were members of a philatelic society. Therefore,
collectors began to unite and make preparations for the establishment of their
own societies. In Carinthia a society was
established as early as the beginning of 1949, but the authorities refused to licence the collectors to operate it until the society
became a member of the association of Slovene philatelists. The initiative
committee for the establishment of the Slovenian philatelic association -
constituted in 1945 - transformed into a preparatory committee. On the basis of
wide discussion the latter prepared among philatelists the Regulations of the
Slovenian Philatelic Association and submitted them to the Ministry of Interior
of the then government of the People's Republic of Slovenia. With the decree issued by
the government on 24 July 1949, the association was granted a licence to operate. On the basis of this decree the
preparatory committee convened the founding general meeting of the Slovenian
Philatelic Association, which took place in the Youth hall (Mladinska
dvorana) at no. 3 Franciškanska
street. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to find out who precisely
attended that meeting. Participants must have been the representatives of the
then societies and other philatelists from the then People's Republic of Slovenia. The
founding meeting was also attended by three representatives of the Koper Philatelic Club, which was founded as early as 1948 in the then second
administrative political unit - Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste. The
foundation of the association meant a "green light" for the
establishment of societies. Thus in 1949 the Slovenian Philatelic Association
had already 28 affiliates – as the societies were then called - with a total of
2,155 members. By May of the next year the number had increased to 36
affiliates with 2,876 members and by March 1952 the association had 44
affiliates with 3,600 members, which was the highest recorded number in its
history. One quarter of its members were young people.
the socio-political changes, the rules of the association changed accordingly
to "the letter of law". The basic tasks set out upon the
establishment, however, have remained the same until today. They are: to
promote Slovenian philately and to support its members with expertise, to
promote stamp collecting and development of philately in general and to promote
the educational role of philately, especially among young people. To achieve
these aims the Slovenian Philatelic Association organizes local and
international philatelic exhibitions, cooperates with foreign philatelic
organizations and international philatelic associations. By giving initiatives,
expressing opinions and putting forward suggestions for stamp issues and other
related philatelic items the Slovenian Philatelic Association also cooperates
with Post of Slovenia. Furthermore, by organizing discussions, expressing
opinions and publishing articles in philatelic magazines and other mass media,
it takes care of the professional development of philately.
of the association is based on the activity of its members, which is voluntary.
It depends on individuals, who are prepared to devote their spare time not only
to creating their own collections but also to passing on their knowledge to the
others. This dissemination of knowledge may take various forms from clubs for
young philatelists to the organisation of meetings
and exhibitions, article writing and publishing of philatelic literature. After
the initial enthusiasm the interest in philately has slightly decreased, which
was also reflected in the work of the association. Some of the once very active
societies do not exist anymore today, others work with variable intensity.
Since the proclamation of independence of Slovenia in 1991 the situation has
improved. The Slovenian Philatelic Association today has 29 members, which are
societies with more than 1,500 members. Some societies have renewed their work
in recent years and some have been established anew. The Slovenian Philatelic
Association is a member of the International Philatelic Association (FIP), the
Federation of European Philatelic Associations (FEPA) and it cooperates in the
working agreement Alpe Adria.
In the latter, the Slovenian Philatelic Association takes a particularly active
part. The working agreement Alpe Adria
joins together philatelists from different regions of neighbouring
countries (Austria, Italy, Hungary
and Germany) including Slovenia and Croatia. This year's international
philatelic exhibition Alpe Jadran
Fila '99 which is to take place in Ljubljana
from 15 to 19 September 1999 and which is organised
within this cooperation also represents the central manifestation in the
celebration of the 50th anniversary of the association.
Dialogue among Civilizations
Inside #470: Pseudo Stamp on Envelope
Thanks to Lloyd Gilbert
50 Years of Europa Stamps
Anniversary of the EUROPA Stamp Series
first EUROPA stamps with a common design depicting a tower formed by the 6
letters of the word EUROPA were issued on 15 September 1956. They were issued
by the six countries which in March 1957 signed the Treaty of Rome establishing
the European Economic Community, which
eventually developed into the European Union. The second issue, released that
very same year, only had a common theme — Peace and Welfare, while the 1958
issue again featured a common design. While the number of countries issuing
EUROPA stamps has grown over the years, the interest in the common design
stamps has diminished. This is why the 1974 EUROPA stamps were the last to
share a common design. Since then, only the 1984 and 2000 EUROPA stamps
appeared with a common design. The year 1959 marks another important milestone
in the history of EUROPA issues. That year 19 countries established the
European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT).
Starting the following year, the EUROPA stamps bore the abbreviation of the new
organization. In 1974, the abbreviation was replaced by the CEPT logo, which
was used until 1992 when the representatives of 24 postal operators agreed to
establish an Association of European Public Postal Operators (PostEurop). Since 1993, when Slovenia joined the countries
issuing EUROPA stamps, these stamps have only borne the EUROPA indication.
During the next year, the EUROPA stamps, which have become sought after by
collectors worldwide, will celebrate their 50th anniversary. Post of Slovenia is joining
the celebrations starting this year with this special stamp issue.
– The Letter
Inside #753: Slovenia #696O
Inside #753: Postal card (21.1.2005), A nvi, post horn (changed color)O – Thanks to Lou
the word letter has multiple meanings, most of us think of a written piece of
paper, put into an envelope, submitted at the postal office to be sent to an
addressee; in case of letters, we are dealing with a special communication
between the sender and the addressee.
between individuals is one of the most basic factors of human cultural
development. Already centuries ago a need of the communication with the help of
mediators has appeared next to the direct communication, since it presented the
only way for individuals to connect in a larger area. The long distance
communication was accelerated by the invention of writing; the transfer of written
messages was already close to our conception of a letter. The first letters
were naturally different than the present form. The oldest found letters were
clay plates, written with cuneiform and inserted into special wrappers from
clay. In the period between 3000 and 1500 B.C., merchants and other accidental
carriers transported the letters from the royal court in Mesopotamia to Capadocia (present Turkey). The letters in the
following years had the form of plates, coated with wax, papyrus and parchment
scrolls, and other objects, which were used to put down and transfer messages.
development of postal services and the mass manufacturing and use of paper
after 1500 brought changes also in the area of letters. The confidentiality of
the letter content dictated their form. The initial letters, written on the
sheet of paper, were simply sheets of papers, folded in various ways, while the
final edges were glued together. In other cases, the folded piece of paper was
tied together with a string or band, which had to be torn apart while opening
the letter. Various ways of sealing the letters finally brought the conception
of the envelope, which presents in most cases a secure way of protecting the
message, submitted for the transfer in the public postal organization or
private carrier. According to some researchers of postal history, the
transition to the use of letter envelopes can be seen in the case of the Mulready's envelopes, which entered the circulation
simultaneously with the black penny. This is also the form of the letter, as we
know it today.
centuries the letters presented the most basic long distance communication;
however, in the years of the strong development of electronics and the use of
the World Wide Web, the letters have been slowly losing its value. However,
there is no fear that they would be lost entirely, since for a long time all
modern means of communication won't be available to all inhabitants; and above
all, the most modern media will never be able to replace the warmth of a hand-written
message on a letter paper.
90 years of chainbreaker stamps
Inside #778: Vavpotič's
first draft of a
Postage due stamp, which was never printed
90 years of chainbreaker stamps
the last months of the First World War, the Slovenian national authority began
to develop together with the National Council for Slovenian provinces and Istria. The National Council of Slovenes, Croats and
Serbs declared on the 29th October the formation of an independent state, and
two days later confirmed the National Government of SCS in Ljubljana. On the 14th November 1918, the
government adopted a decree on the preliminary management, by which the Postal
and Telegraph Directorate for the entire Slovenian territory was established
with a seat in Ljubljana.
Due to the needs of postal traffic and promotion of the new state, the new
postal management wanted to issue a series of new stamps; therefore, it asked
the academy-trained painter Prof. Ivan Vavpotič
to prepare the drafts for the definitive, postage due and newspaper stamps.
to the first drawings of Vavpotič, the motive of
a slave who is tearing apart chains was selected for definitive stamps. This
motive was also the reason for the famous name "chain breaker
stamps", which is familiar to collectors all over the world. Later on, Vavpotič regretted the selection of the commission by
claiming in a self-critical article, which was published in the journal Jutro in 1925, that the motive was daub.
for printing the first stamps were ready already in November 1918, which is why
these stamps contain the inscription "Država
SHS" (State of Slovenes,
Croats and Serbs). On the 1st December 1918, the officially non-recognized
state joined the Kingdom
of Serbs, Croats and
Slovenes, which is inscribed on the later prepared stamps. The first two stamps
with the figure of a slave were issued on the 3rd January 1919; following, the
stamps of this series had been issued in various editions until October 1920.
The first Slovenian stamps had been in use until spring 1921, when the
government in Belgrade
began to issue "uniform" stamps for the entire state.
stamp indicates Vavpotič's first draft of a
postage due stamp, which was never printed.
Inside #????: Yugoslavia-Slovenia
wrote: The autographed photo is of the "Chainbreaker"
designer, Ivan Vavpotic, who was a noted Slovene
painter and sculptor. The reproduced stamp is from a series issued on January
3,1919, so technically, they were printed in 1918. I could not find any
definitive information, but it may be possible that Slovenia, like Russia, in
1918, was still using the Julian calendar, and so were 10 days behind the
Thanks to Lou Guadagno
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